1. What the dosage (or égalisage)
Some centilitres lost during the draining are replaced by a mixture of old wine and sugar, called liqueur of expedition(shipping): it is the dosage.
The quantity of sugar present in the liqueur of expedition(shipping) is going to determine if the champagne will be raw(gross), dry or semi-dry. (Semi-dry and soft, even sweeter champagnes, became rare).
According to the content in sugars of the used liqueur, we shall speak about a champagne:
- natural Crude oil(Gross salary), so called not measured, or zero dosage. This category appeared in 1996 excludes the addition(bill) of sugar after the foam grip(taking) and the content in residual sugar has to remain lower than 3 grams by liter.
- Special raw(gross), when the dosage is situated between 0 – 6 g/l, appreciated the amateurs of cigars.
- Crude oil(Gross salary), when the dosage is situated below 15 g/l.
- Special dry, when the dosage is situated between 12 and 20 g/l
- Dry, when the dosage is situated between 17 and 35 g/l
- Semi-dry, when the dosage is situated between 33 and 50 g/l
· Soft, when the dosage is situated beyond 50 g/l.
2. How produced one the pink champagne?
The pink champagne can result from two methods authorized in champenoise wine making: either by letting the skin of the black grapes color the pulp, immediately after the pressing and during a relatively brief time(weather) (to avoid that the rosé wine becomes red wine), what we indicate(appoint) by ” rosé of heavy loss “, or by assembling the clear wine (white) and the red wine (of champagne(Champagne) necessarily). It is this second method which is used to develop the vintage symphony (create a hypertext link towards the vintage symphony) Put down(Frost) and Filii because the head wine waiters prefer to work and to watch remotely their white wine, to add it then only the red.
3. Concerns bound(connected) to the global warming
The global reheating of the planet will have undoubtedly and unfortunately consequences on the culture of the vineyard(vine) and on the wine-making champenoise economy. The northern climate indeed allows us to have a fresh(cool) climate producing bitter and light wines necessary for the realization of a good champagne and calcareous soils bring to grapes an acidity which allows the aromas to develop for a long time during the phase of ageing. A rise of the temperatures and a long hot season in champagne(Champagne) would modify of this fact the properties and the good progress of the process of ageing of the wine.
The hottest temperatures never raised(found) in France, during the summer, 2003, and the low(weak) precipitation so caused(provoked) a drying of the grape and entrainé a strong concentration of sugar in grains(beads). The levels of acidity fell(flopped) as the grape stuffed itself with sugar, while a champagne at need for a good acidity to age well and develop its aromas. The production of 2003 was so reduced of about 50 % with regard to(compared with) normal year.
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4. Les flacons
The most usual bottle of champagne has a volume of 75 cl. She(it) is more thick and more resistant than the bottles of the other wines, to be able to resist a gas pressure of six atmospheres (or 6 bars). The bottom of the flask is for the same reason strongly in hollow.
- the eighth: 9,4 cl (uncommon);
- the quarter: 18,75 or 20 cl;
- half: 37,5 cl;
- the medium: 60 cl (uncommon);
- the bottle: 75 cl;
- the Magnum: 1,5 l is 2 bottles.
- the jeroboam: 3 l is 4 bottles.
- the réhoboam: 4,5 l is 6 bottles, (uncommon);
- the mathuselah: 6 l is 8 bottles;
- the salmanazar: 9 l is 12 bottles;
- the balthazar: 12 l is 16 bottles;
- the nabuchodonosor: 15 l is 20 bottles;
Certain houses also propose even more important sizes(formats):
- the salomon: 18 liters, that is 24 bottles;
- the sovereign: 26,25 liters, that is 35 bottles;
- the primacy: 27 liters is 36 bottles;
- the melchizédec: 30 liters, that is 40 bottles.
A new standard of bottle, lighter (835 g. against 900 g. previously) was thrown(launched) this year by the CIVC to reduce the carbon footprint and the transport costs.
5. Quelle est l’origine du culot creux des bouteilles de vin ?
This sinking, which the professionals name(appoint) “sting”(“injection”), assures(insures) the stability of the bottle so that it does not oscillate when it stands. It would be difficult to make a bottom strictly flat. By pressing the bottle in fusion(merger) on a relief shape, we obtain a concave nerve(cap) in the perfectly flat edges. This technique, invented in the IVth century, became widespread to all the types(chaps) of bottles. In an exception near: that some champagne Roederer, slept off Crystal. His(her,its) flat bottom is a requirement of czar Alexandre II ( 1855 ) which was afraid that we hide an explosive charge in the nerve(cap) …
6. Le bouchon
The cork of the bottles of champagne is famous for its form in mushroom … after opening.
This characteristic form is not indeed the one of origin. She is due to the fact that the cork – cylindrical originally and of important diameter (31mm. – Was only partially inserted into the neck of the bottle.
This peculiarity (and that of the muselet explained below) aim at preventing the cork from being expelled from the bottle, under the pressure of the gas contained in the wine.
Because it is of diameter more important than the collar of the bottle, the cork is set up by compression (reduction of the diameter in 17mm) in the collar of the bottle, on half of its length, then crushed mushroom-shaped to receive the muselet.
In time, the part of the cork situated outside the collar, deformed during the crushing necessary for the implementation of the muselet, dries out faster than that in touch with the wine and acquires this form, at the time of the opening of the bottle, narrower at the level of the collar.
This aspect is stressed by the quality difference of corks establishing the cork.
A cork of champagne decomposes into three parts: · The head, sometimes called sleeve and partially engaged in the neck, is established by a chipboard of cork. This fabrication method authorizes sizes of corks much superior it to be possible to collect on trees today. Of lower quality and representing the largest part of the cork, this part is not in touch with the wine.
- The body, established by two slices of massive cork in the crossed folds, is stuck on the base of the head. In touch with the wine, this “noble” part assures the waterproofness of the flask.
Once assembled, meulés and sanded, corks are the object of an individual selection and are generally handled on surface (solid paraffin wax), to guarantee their waterproofness and favor their introduction in the bottle.
7. La capsule et le muselet
Over the cork, a tinplate plate is maintained, with the cork, by the wire préformé, called muselet. This plate prevents the wire from sinking into the cork. The muselet is resumed on the ruffle of the neck and maintains the cork, which cannot be then ejected anymore by the pressure in the bottle. The plates of muselet (also called “capsules” in the ordinary language) became collector’s items, this passion being indicated placomusophilie.
8. La taille des bulles de champagne
The size of bubbles in the flute of champagne often establishes a criterion, unfortunately erroneous, of quality of the champagne (more the bubble is fine, better is the champagne).
This approach rests in fact on a confusion between quality and age of the champagne.
Indeed, old champagnes, in particular vintage champagnes, are longer kept in cellar and thus lose (through the cork which is never absolutely tight) a part of their carbon dioxide.
It is this pressure so relatively reduced which explains the sharpness of bubbles, and not the intrinsic quality of the wine …
9. La vitesse du bouchon
A cork of champagne not maintained in its eviction can reach a speed of about 15 m/s (that is 50 kph).
It is thus essential to manage never the collar of the bottle in the course of opening towards a person or an object and to keep permanently the hand on the cork during the opening of the bottle (in other words, to leave the hand firmly pressed the cork, by precaution, right after the muselet and the capsule removed).
10. Sabler ou sabrer le champagne ?
Both expression exist but do not indicate(appoint) the same thing. The debates live(remain) besides as for the exact origins of the expressions …
To pop the champagne was, according to most of the commentators, a way to drink the champagne which consisted in the last century in taking a flute, to blow there inside so as to cover the surface interns of a light vapor and to sprinkle then with some fine sugar so that a part(party) of the sugar remained fixed to the wall.
We paid(poured) then the champagne on this coat(layer) of sugar which was transformed then foam. It is likely that this expression ” to Pop the champagne ” was then widened to indicate(appoint) the necessity of drinking very quickly this champagne made even more sparkling(frothier,more frothy).
To pop the champagne can thus indicate(appoint) both aspects in this way to drink the champagne, the powdering of sugar and the consumption of the contents of the flute of a single line(feature).
To pop the champagne consists in opening the bottle without uncorking her(it) but by means of a sabre (or of quite different heavy and lengthened object, also). The technique consists in making slide the dish(flat) of the blade along the neck by giving a very dry blow with the back of the sabre onto the collar(pass) of the bottle. The given shock and the pressure of the wine inside the bottle allows to break her(it) clear(net), at the level of the collar(pass) which is violently split and ejected with the cork and the muselet.
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11. Le champagne rouge
In the XIXth century, some houses developed some wine of effervescent champagne of red color by adding to some white champagne a quarter or a third(third party) of quiet red wine, then a part of liqueur of expedition(shipping) of red color. This type(chap) of champagne was forbidden the end of the XIXth century.
12. La bonne température
The champagne must be refreshed and struck (frozen)((ice-cold)).
He(It) will be served to nearby temperatures from 6 to 8 degrees C ° for a young champagne and 10 in 12 degrees C ° in most for a more mature or vintage champagne.
The mode of ideal refreshment is the champagne bucket filled(performed) half with cold water and half with ice cubes (no more than about ten cubes).
Having said that, it is possible to leave permanently, as champenois, a bottle with the refrigerator, what so allows to have a bottle ready to serve.
The freezer is banned to protect the aromas and the flavors of the champagne.
13. Le choix du verre
To appreciate(estimate) all the qualities and the subtleties of the champagne, the flute is imperative (glass or crystal and especially not plastic).
Compound(Made up), for its high half, of a part(party) intended to receive the liquid, presenting a narrow opening and, for its low half, from a central foot, the flute indeed is to be preferred to the cup(cutting), too flared, which is going to accelerate the release(clearance) of bubbles and the dispersal of the bouquet.
To hold the flute by the foot allows to avoid the reheating of the glass. (Flutes without foot outcomes(exits) of the courteous parties(holidays) of the XVIIIth century were called “loose”).
The filling of the flute does not have to exceed(irritate) ¾ of the packaging, to favor the development of the bouquet.
14. Pourquoi n’indiquez-vous pas vos prix et conditions tarifaires sur le site ?
We do not indicate our prices(prizes) and tariff conditions on the site because we wish at first to make you discover and share, through our site, through our conversations(maintenances) and especially through our meetings, our passion of the work of the vineyard(vine) been looked after and the elaboration of a requiring(demanding) wine, our spirit of opening and listening as well as our commitment to propose you wines conceived(designed) and raised(brought up) in the respect for strong values.
Our prices(prizes) and tariff conditions are however available on simple demand(request), in particular via the form of contact.
15. Comment puis-je obtenir vos prix et conditions tarifaires ?
Our prices and tariff conditions are available on simple request, in particular via the form of contact.
16. Où puis-je vous rencontrer ?
All the informations are available on the contact page.
17. Produisez-vous d’autres vins que du champagne ?
No, the House Mater and Filii produces and markets only some champagne, under the mark Mater and Filii. We shall maybe intend to propose you of the ratafia of champagne by a few years, in limited quantity.
18. Disposez-vous d’un dossier de presse ?
Our press kit is available for download on this link.